The Short and Long of PoE Cabling

Selecting the right cable for PoE

Powering of security cameras through the same cable used to transmit data and video is one of the greatest benefits of IP cameras over network cabling. Ease of installation with one pull, one cable, and also cost reduction by limiting AC power at the device end are the most obvious benefits. PoE also becomes the most reliable method of delivering power to an IP camera, because all networked devices are connected to back-up uninterruptible power supply (UPS) battery back up in the telecommunications room (TR) Therefore in the event of a cable cut and/or loss of power, the camera continues to send data.
There are three basic components needed to operate PoE: 1) the powered device (such as the IP camera); 2) the powered source equipment (PSE)  and, 3) the media – either copper or fiber. 
The powered device must meet the Ethernet protocol, either IEEE 802.3af that allows up to 15.4 watts of power for each port, or IEEE 802.3at PoE+ that allows up to 25.5 watts for each port. The higher wattage expands PoE to include some power-hungry applications such pan, tilt, zoom (PTZ) cameras.
The PoE or PoE+ power level supplied by the PSE will vary depending on the power requirement of the powered devices. PSE comes in two forms – a midspan or an endspan. A midspan is either port-to-port power injectors located on the device end or a powered patch panel that connects to the switch in the TR. The midspan injects DC power to the twisted pair cable and the data passes through the injector. An endspan is actually an Ethernet switch with PoE capabilities built in, so both data and power can be sent from the switch through passive patching fields.
Media Selection: Twisted Pair or Fiber
PoE is typically deployed along with data and video over unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) network cable where access to AC power is inconvenient, expensive or infeasible to supply. IP cameras are equipped with standard RJ-45 ports that connect to the four pairs in UTP cabling. 
However, according to the TIA/568-C standards for copper twisted pair cabling (either Category 5e or 6), the maximum length for a cable segment is 100 meters (328 feet). Most indoor cameras can meet that distance limitation from the Telecommunications Room (TR). If the camera location is further, there needs to be an additional cross connection with additional switches and active components. But, in the structured cabling realm, no more than three cross-connections are allowed from the main cross connect (also known as MDF or equipment room), through the horizontal cross-connect (also known as the TR or IDF). Therefore, extending the distance to remote locations, such as a pole on a parking lot, along fences or even in transit routes, it is not feasible to use twisted pair cabling. 
Optical fiber is the choice to extend the distance. In addition fiber is impervious to heat, EMI, RFI and is a more stable transmission. But, since the IP cameras and switches operate off of RJ-45 ports, media converters must be deployed at each end. PoE media converters can support PoE or PoE+ and convert the fiber to copper by injects DC power over the UTP cable. From there far end media converter, an additional 100 meters can be added.
Figure 1
Figure 1 shows the media converters on each end – in the TR and at the device end. But, note that the media converters require local power.
Extended Distance with OneReach
In long-distance scenarios where local power for the media converters is not feasible or accessible at the device end, there is a solution – Berk-Tek’s OneReach PoE Extender System. Data/video can run over the optical fiber and the power can run over copper conductors. Because the cable carries low-voltage power (up to 25W as defined by Power over Ethernet Plus, IEEE 802.3at) this cable is actually defined as a Class 3 copper cable with fiber (through the NEC codes). The stranded copper conductors are 12 AWG or 18 AWG and coupled with either tight-buffered or loose tube multimode optical fibers. 
The powered media converter, or power injector (a midspan device), located in the TR injects both the power and the data from the active equipment – the fiber switch and the copper power supply unit. The composite cable assembly attaches to the injector through fiber LC connectors and screw terminals for the copper/power conductors. The total distance is limited by the power provided through the active media converter on the termination side as well as the gauge of the copper. The more power needed, the thicker the gauge. Distances up to 3,850 feet between media converters can be achieved.
Figure 2 
The remote module is a passive media converter that converts the cable assembly to an RJ-45, IEEE 802.3af compliant output. Additional 300 feet (100 meters) of horizontal UTP cable may be added from the remote module to increase the total distance to up to 4,100 feet.

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Carol Oliver Berk-Tek Marketing Analyst